Index of Geographic Names Index of Personal Names Note on Names If a settlement lies outside the territory of present-day Hungary we always use its official current place name. In order to make identification easier in the index we will also refer to the Hungarian or other relevant forms of the settlement name. If a settlement is lost or integrated into a modern settle- ment with a different name we will use its medieval or early modern name.
With rivers having sections in present-day Hungary we will use the Hungarian names unless they have an English version. With rivers outside of present-day Hungary we use the form of the name used in the relevant countries. We will use Hungarian forms for the historical county names.
Kings and swiss compostela paths anti aging will be referred to in their English name forms but will always indicate their title as kings and queens of Hungary. Acknowledgements The concept of this volume originated in the scholarly oeuvre of the late pro- fessor András Kubinyi —a leading scholar of medieval Hungarian economic and social history.
Most of the authors of the individual chapters were his students or colleagues. The editors are indebted to Professor Kubinyi for inspiration and the motivation he provided. The project was directed by András Kubinyi, and after his death by József Laszlovszky.
The results of this research project have been summarized in a Hungarian- language collective volume that was published in Gazdaság és gaz- dálkodás a középkori Magyarországon.
Gazdaságtörténet, anyagi kultúra, régészet [Economy and farming in medieval Hungary. Economic history, ma- terial culture and archaeology], eds. Kubinyi, A. Budapest: Martin Opitz.
Many of the chapters were translated by Alan Campbell, and the editors hereby wish to express their grati- tude to him for his precise and dedicated work as well as for Simon Milton for proofreading the entire manuscript. This volume, however, is not a simple translation of its forerunner in Hungarian, but is basically a new volume which includes a number of new chapters, covering — among other topics — royal revenues, environmental changes, and roads and communication networks.
All the chapters have been re-written and adapted according to the needs and interests of non-Hungar- ian readers. The authors have also endeavored to define and clarify all the concepts and terminology that are less well known among non-Hungarian readers.
The environment of urban tourism The reflection of the environment of urban tourism: quality of life When exploring the impact of tourism on the quality of life, big cities should be comprehended as an environment where the use of the space by the tourists and the local society, and the vector of the related spiritual processes are all connected to the basic functions of the settlements. When we start from the categories used in the model by Partsch, the provision of the space of residence, work, leisure, supply, education, transportation and communication is the number one function of the big cities. Successful tourist cities devote enormous energy to operating the basic functions in a way that gives maximum satisfaction to both local inhabitants and the visitors to the respective settlements. While each of the basic functions of the big cities in themselves may have dominant role in the quality of life of the local population, it is usually their complexity that impact spiritual processes.
The editors express their gratitude to the series editor Florin Curta for ac- cepting this volume to the series East Central and Eastern Europe in the Middle Ages, — and for his numerous advices to improve the quality of the text. Marcella Mulder from Brill helped the editorial work from the begin- ning until the last moment with special patience and care. János Bak maintained a supporting role throughout the process of publish- ing this volume.
Tel: 0 83 62 9 39 mail: svneuschwanstein bsv. A Németország déli részén, Schwangau község területén található épületet II. Lajos, Bajorország királya építtette Richard Wagner tiszteletére. Habár a fényképezés és a videofelvételek készítése nem engedélyezett a kastélyon belül, mégis ez Németország legtöbbet fényképezett épülete, valamint egyike az ország leglátogatottabb turistacélpontjainak. Az Alpsee felett emelkedik, a Pöllat-szakadék magányos szikláján épült kastély, amelyet II.
His close and critical reading of the manuscript, questions, and advice have been of great help. The editors List of Figures and Tables Figures 0. No data from counties left blank 9. She is also curator of Collection of Diplomatic Photographs.
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Her main interests are medieval economic and social history. He received a degree in anti aging svájci hajtás értékesítés science at the University body shop szemkörnyékápoló Gödöllő Hungary in Following fifteen years of full-time archaeo- zoological research at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences he began teaching the same subject at universities in Budapest HungaryEdinburgh UK and Stockholm Sweden where he is currently employed.
His main areas of inter- est include the history of cattle exploitation, the reconstruction of fishing and the development of cultural differences in meat swiss compostela paths anti aging in Europe and Southwest Asia. He is author of the monograph Animals in the urban landscape in the wake of the Middle Ages: a case study from Vác, Hungary Oxford, Zoltán Batizi is a freelance archaeologist who has worked at great number of excavations in Pest County as leading archaeologist.
He has been working at the Tragor Ignác Museum at Vác for more than a decade. His main research interests span medieval history and the archaeology of Pest County, especially of the Danube Bend, historical navigation on the Danube, medieval mining and minorities to early modern peasant living conditions and the history of egészséges szuperételek az öregedés ellen formation of family names.
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His main research interest is the ar- chaeozoology of Prehistory. He defended his PhD dissertation in related to the same issue: Őskori települések kulturális ökológiai és swiss compostela paths anti aging vizsgálata A késő rézkori háztartások és a konyhahulladék kapcsolata [Cultural ecological and zooarchaeological research of prehistoric settlements The connections between the late Copper Age households and the household rubbish].
His recent research öregedésgátló krém fiataloknak on new methodological and computer applications in archaeozoology. He is currently working on his PhD swiss compostela paths anti aging about archaeozoological finds in the medieval Buda Castle.
Swiss compostela paths anti aging Daróczi-Szabó is working as a freelance archaeozoologist for numerous swiss compostela paths anti aging in Hungary, analyzing assemblages dating from the Neolithic period until the Modern Times. She defended her PhD thesis in on the animal remains at Kána village in the twelfth—thirteenth centuries Az Árpád-kori Kána falu állatcsont- jainak vizsgálata [Animal bone remains of the Árpádian-age village of Kána].
His main research interest is the economic and social history of late medieval Hungary. He has published a number of studies on personnel involved in the financial administration of the kingdom and on royal income. In the last two decades he has extensively published on the history of mining and trade in medieval Hungary, with special regard to salt.
Currently he is working on the topic of the university peregrination of Hungarian students. He is the head of the joint research group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and Eötvös Loránd University on this topic. His main research interests include building archaeology, castle research and material culture. He co-authored monographs on the castles of Heves and Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén counties in the series entitled: Magyarország várainak topográfiája [Topography of Hungarian castles].
László Ferenczi is swiss compostela paths anti aging historian and archaeologist. His main research interest is the economy of the monastic orders, most importantly the Cistercians. He is about to finish his dissertation at the Central European University on the Cistercian econo- my in medieval Hungary with special regard to the management of granges Management of Monastic Landscapes.
His publications include land- scape history, environmental history and water management. Her main research interests include the archaeozoology of birds and mammals in the Carpathian Basin and other parts of Europe. His main research interest is the monetary history of medieval Hungary.
He defended his PhD dissertation in on the monetary reform of King Matthias Corvinus and its continuation until He is the author of various studies and articles on topics such as numismatics, monetary history, late medieval coinage, Ottoman coin- age, religious medals and the legal regulations of archaeological excavations.
His publications include the edition XVI. He authored the monograph Uradalmak és végvárak.
A kamarai birtokok és a törökellenes határvédelem a Estates of the Hungarian Chamber and the anti-Ottoman bor- merwanji jamhedji anti aging protection in the sixteenth-century kingdom of Hungary] He has directed ex- cavations in several areas of the late medieval town and citadel of Visegrád and has organized regular meetings for archaeozoologists at the museum.
He specializes in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Period and works with osseous materials in particular.
His main research interests were late medieval urban, social, ecclesiastical and economic history, the history of everyday life and material culture. He has ded- icated a number of works to the history of medieval Buda, Pest and Óbuda, as well as of their suburbs.
Städteentwicklung, Alltagsleben und Regierung im mittelalterlichen Ungarn His collected studies on the his- tory of Budapest were published posthumously in two volumes: Tanulmányok Budapest középkori történetéről [Studies on the medieval history of Budapest] He is also a regular guest lec- turer at Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest. His research interests span the archaeology of the countryside and monastic landscapes through the preser- vation of cultural heritage to the history of English—Hungarian relations in the Middle Swiss compostela paths anti aging.
He recently co-authored and co-edited the two-volume English sur- vey of the history and archaeological heritage of Visegrád The Medieval Royal Palace at Visegrád, ed. An Archaeozoological Approach. Her research interest focuses on human-animal relationships in nomadic societies, animals in svájci praroman anti aging practices, and the history of veterinary treatment and care.
His main research interest is the medieval economic and urban history of Central Europe. He is co-editor of the Latin-English bi- lingual edition of the autobiography of Emperor Charles iv ed. His main research interests are historical geography, the history of everyday life and the history of social relations in medieval Hungary.
His main ongoing project is the continuation of the Árpád-kori Magyarország tör- téneti földrajza [Historical Geography of Árpádian Age Hungary]. He is about to finish a volume that discusses the history of Sáros County from the tenth to the fourteenth centuries.
He recently published the account book of the incomes of a Hungarian aristocrat in late medieval Hungary Kanizsai László számadáskönyve [The account book of László Kanizsai], She graduated as an archaeology major from Eötvös Loránd University where currently she pursues her PhD studies. Her dissertation deals with the process of domestication in the Neolithic in the light swiss compostela paths anti aging hunting and animal husbandry at the archaeo- logical site of Alsónyék-Bátaszék in Hungary.
Her research interests are animal- keeping, husbandry and farming in Prehistory. His special field of research is medieval Hungarian and European social and urban history, but his research interests also include medieval church, legal and military history. He has participated in several national research programs, the most important of which led to swiss compostela paths anti aging publication of the Early Hungarian Historical Lexicon in He also acted as associate-editor and author of the Medieval Warfare and Military Technology.
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An Encyclopedia Oxford, He has published four books and more than one hundred and fifty studies, a sig- nificant part of which are in English. He recently defended his dissertation that addressed the possible impacts of the Little Ice Age on the anti aging kezelések sötét bőrre patterns and habi- tat areas in the Great Hungarian Plain Alkalmazkodás és felemelkedés — mod- ernizáció és leszakadás: Kis jégkorszaki kihívások és társadalmi válaszok a Tiszántúlon [Adaptation and Rise — Modernization and Decline: Little Ice Age Challenges and Social Responses on the Trans-Tisza Region], His works include studies on river regulations, habitat restoration, agricultural and land- scape history.
Her fields of interest and range of publications include medieval ecclesiastical history, especially the history of monasticism, economic history and historical demography.
Her recent research focuses on the economic activity of the Paulines and the mendicant orders in Hungary swiss compostela paths anti aging in Central Europe.
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Pauline farming in medieval Hungary] was published in His main research interest is historical ecology and environmental history, especially the history of Central European woodlands and landscapes from the beginning of the Holocene until the pres- ent. He works towards the integration of natural sciences and humanities using an interdisciplinary framework. His works include Woodland and Forests in Medieval Hungaryseveral edited volumes on environmental history, and ca.
Her research concentrates on medieval towns in the Carpathian Basin and Central Europe, with particular regard to society, demography, lit- eracy, everyday life, and topography. Her previous publications include Otthon a városban.
Társadalom és anyagi kultúra a középkori Sopronban, Pozsonyban és Eperjesen [At home in the town: Society and material culture in medi- eval Sopron, Bratislava and Prešov] ; ed. His main research interests are the history of crafts and history of courts with special regard to the courts of queens. He de- fended his PhD dissertation at Eötvös Loránd University on the organization of the court of the queen consort to King Charles I Piast Erzsébet és udvara, — [Elizabeth Piast and her court, —], He has published a number of studies on crafts, the history of archaeology and museology, as well as on diets and queenship in medieval Hungary.
Her research interests involve medieval history and archaeology, landscape archaeology, and histori- cal geography swiss compostela paths anti aging special regard to the road system of medieval Hungary. His main research swiss compostela paths anti aging is the monetary history of medieval Hungary with special regard to the Angevin period.
He defended his PhD dissertation in on the swiss compostela paths anti aging and money circulation of the Angevin period Pénzverés és pénzforga- lom az Anjou-kori Magyarországon. He is the author of dozens of studies and articles on topics such as numismatics, money circulation, coin-hoards and monetary history.
He has also been involved in numerous exhibitions held at the Hungarian National Museum. His research interest is the environmental and economic history of the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Period.
His works discuss the problem of the environmental change brought by military activities in the Carpathian Basin, as well as on mills and milling in medieval Hungary. His monograph Körmend és a vizek. Egy település és környezete a korai újkorban [Körmend and the waters. Her re- search concentrates on the medieval economic history of Hungary.
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She has published a complete register of tolls in the Árpádian age A királyketteje és az ispán harmada. She has also published a number of studies about the problem of royal taxation and revenues, as well as financial administration, chambers and chamber counts.