The Middle-Ukrainian 1 Galician-Volynian Chronicle hereafter GVC - the most important historical source of events in 13th century southwestern Rus', an area which is now Western Ukraine — has many references in the Galician half of the chronicle to Hungary and the Hungarians, for in the first half of the thirteenth century the royal Árpád dynasty attempted to gain dominion over Galicia and create a second kingdom on its territory to be ruled by the younger members of the royal house of Hungary.
Drawing on my English translation 3 of the chronicle, I will cite references which illustrate these vicissitudes. I also beg the indulgence of specialists in this field for any oversimplifications or omissions I may have inadvertently made.
Their comments will only aid me in my work on the preparation of a critical edition of this very important historical and literary monument. Thus, at the very beginning of the chronicle, after the death of Great Prince Roman Mstislavii, the father of the four-year old Danilo and two-year old Vasilko, who are the protagonists of the GVC, the Hungarian king appears as the protector of the orphaned children and Roman's widow against Prince Rjurik Rostislaviő of Kiev, while Hungary is depicted as swiss gab anti aging haven for Danilo: a And because there were so many other Hungarians [in the city], the Galicians could not act on their own initiative [when Rjurik appeared before the city walls].
You had sworn an oath that [in case of his death] you would live in peace with his remaining kin. Swiss gab anti aging that they axe in exile, let us go wrest their patrimony [from the hands of their enemies and return it to them".
Upon hearing these words, the king regretted that such had come to pass. He kept Danilo by his side while the princess and Vasilko stayed with Lestko.
И даже заставил все повторить.
The Hungarian soldiers led by Benedict Bor and sent by thé king in the year erroneously recorded under the year to wrest the capital city of Halyc' from Prince Roman ïgoreviï, Danilo's contender for the Galician throne, receive, however, a very negative treatment from the chronicler: Benedikt captured [Prince] Roman [Igorevic] as he was bathing in a bath-house and sent him to Hungary.
He expressed himself allegorically about this tormentor Benedikt: "In swiss gab anti aging time the Antichrist will be known by three names" and then fled from him, for [the latter] tortured boyars and citizens alike and was addicted to lechery. And indeed he was the Antichrist 8 for his horrendous deeds bore witness thereof. But when Prince Roman Igorevic" does succeed in taking back Halyi from the Hungarians in erroneously recorded under the yearthe king is shown to be not beyond receiving gifts to assauge his anger over the expulsion of Bor: Save us from this tormentor Benedikt".
Volodimer gave his son Izjaslav the city of Terebovl' and sent his [other] son Vsevolod bearing gifts to the king in Hungary [in order to placate him for the expulsion of Benedikt].
Yet the king's relationship with Danilo remains untouched swiss gab anti aging these events, for the above passage ends with a rumor of a plan to make Danilo heir to the Hungarian throne, a plan which, however, was never realized: While [Prince] Danilo was in Hungary, King Andrej, who had no son, the Hungarian boyars, and the whole land wanted to give Andrej 's daughter in marriage to Prince Danilo, although both were still children.
Indeed, it is truly interesting that outside of his acceptance of gifts from both the enemy and ally alike, the king remains beyond reproach for the Galician chronicler even though his own troops may be shown to be less than heroic when fighting alone see Marcel's "dishonor" in quote b below.
Volodislav Kormiliőic fled to Hungary as did [the boyars] Sudislav and Filip.
Finding Danilo in Hungary - and he was still a child - they made the [following] request of the Hungarian king: "Give us Danilo, the [rightful] heir of Halyö, so that with him we could take it from the Igorevic" princes".
The king joyfully sent a large army which he entrusted to the great dvorskij Pot. Herewith are the names of the boyars that were with him: the first fwas] Petro TuroviS, the second - Banko, the third - Mika Bradatyj, the fourth - Lotoxarot, the fifth Mokian, the sixth - Tibrec, the seventh - Marcel, and many others, but to count them off and to write them down would be impossible. The Polovcians, however, together with Izjaslav Volodimeric' came to the aid of the [besieged] Roman [Igorevic].
The Hungarians could not withstand the [Polovcian] attack and ran from their camp. Mika was wounded, and Tobasa cut off his head.
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When the Polovcians saw [that they had routed the Hungarians], they attacked them fiercely [once again], but the Hungarians fled [offering no resistance] to the river Ljuta, with the Polovcians hard at their heels, because [their reinforcements] - the Poles and Rus'ians had not yet arrived.
The Hungarians went down [to the ford] and barely managed to cross the river. The Hungarians returned to their tents - that is their camp. Then [the allies] returned to Halyc and the Great Roman's [wife] Princess [Anna] arrived to see her beloved son Danilo.
Changes in the structure and organization of Hungarian society, along with the distinguishing features of Hungarian assimilation, helped to nurture a typically Hungarian, and more particularly Budapest, talent. These patterns of assimilation in pre-World War I Austria-Hungary, particularly in Hungary, and those in the United States share a number of remarkable similarities. The social and legal interplay of Jewish-Gentile relations such as religious conversion, mixed marriages, forced and voluntary Magyarization and ennoblement became relevant at the time of World War I, as well as during the social and political crises of
Thus, King Andrej did not forget his former agreement with his "brother" 1 ° - the Great Prince Roman - but sent his soldiers and placed his "son" on the throne of HalyC. When the [Igorevic] princes - Roman, Svjatoslav, and Rostislav were captured, the Hungarians wanted to take them to their king. The Galicians, however, requested their permission to hang the princes in revenge.
The Hungarians were persuaded with costly gifts, and the princes were turned over [to the Galicians] for hanging in the month of September. When the king learned of her banishment, he grieved [greatly].
The [Hungarian] king came to Halyc bringing along his sister-in-law - the [Grand] Princess, Roman's spouse - and the boyars of Volodimer'; [Prince] Ingvar [Jaroslavic] arrived from Luck [and] other princes [joined them in Halyc also.
The king] held a council with his sister-in-law and the boyars of Volodimer' [during which] he stated that [the boyar] Volodislav [Kormilic'ic] had assumed authority [in Haly5] and had banished his sister-in-law [from the city].
Sudislav, however, gave much wealth [to his captors] and "changed into gold" - that is having given them much gold, he was able to save himself.
While he was being led away, Javolod and Jaropolk - his brother - fled to Peresopnica to [Prince] Mstislav.
They summoned him and in their company [he marched upon the city of] Bozk. After some time had passed, the king hurriedly began to gather a great army.
However, the image of the Hungarian king changes drastically for the Galician chronicler with the Council of Spis" inat which time Andrew together with Leszek Biaty in text: Lestko of Poland reached the decision that Halyi must now be captured for Andrew's son Koloman, thereby turning Galicia into a second Hungarian kingdom for the Árpád dynasty.
At first the Galician chronicler only records the contents of this council without noting his disapproval: The king liked Pakoslav's [advice]. He held council with Lestko in Spis" 12 and took Lestko's daughter for his son.
Then sending [troops], he captured Volodislav in Halyi.
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And this is why all the princes looked with disfavor upon his children. The king placed his son in Halyi, presented Lestko with PeremysT and gave [the boyar] Pakoslav the city of Ljubacev, for he was a friend of Roman's wife and her children. However, when military operations actually begin, the Galician chronicler expresses his approval over the Hungarian loss to Danilo's father-in-law, Prince Mstislav Mstislavic' Udalyj of Novgorod and Halyő, for the Hungarians had been guilty of the sin of pride and had defiled the Church of Our Lady, the Blessed Virgin Mary in Halyö by turning it into a fortress: Nothing [of importance] happened [until].
He was wont to say that one stone could break many pots or to boast that one needed only a sharp sword and a swift steed [to kill] many Rus'ians. But God would not tolerate this and later the ever-proud Filja was killed by Danilo Romanovic. Prince Oleksander betrayed Danilo and Vasilko and they had no succour from anyone except God until [Prince] Mstislav arrived with the Polovcians. Then Filja retreated with his great host of Swiss gab anti aging and Poles, taking with him the Galician boyars, his father-in-law Sudislav, and [many] others.
But some [of the boyars] fled [from him], for he had looked swiss gab anti aging upon them. There was peace. Then Lestko marched against Danilo to Scekarev to prevent him from coming to the aid of his father-in-law Mstislav. In the meantime, Filja was preparing for war. Dmitr, and Bot. The Hungarians and Poles gave chase, but one Polovcian turned around and shot Uz in the eye with an arrow.
Uz fell legjobb anti aging ránc from his horse and [the Hungarians] took his body away and mourned foi him. The next day, on the eve of the feast of the Blessed Virgin, Mstislav marched early in the morning against the proud Filja and his Swiss gab anti aging and Poles, and a great battle ensued which Mstislav won.
Олвин вспомнил, что на этом вот самом месте Алистра просто повернулась и убежала, и подумал -- сможет ли он побудить Джизирака пройти немного. Я прошу тебя только лишь взглянуть, -- умолял он наставника,-- а не выходить из города. Уж, конечно, это-то ты можешь. В Эрли, во время своего недолгого пребывания там, Олвин наблюдал однажды, как мать учила своего малыша ходить. Увлекая Джизирака по коридору, он не мог не увидеть аналогии и делал поощряющие замечания по мере того, как его наставник, одну за другой переставлял не повинующиеся ему ноги, помаленьку все-таки продвигаясь .
Many of the Hungarians and Poles were killed as they fled [from the battlefield]. The haughty Filja was captured by the youth Dobrynin, whom the treacherous [boyar] Ziroslav had kidnapped.
Because of Dobrynin [Miroslav] had been exposed and had lost his patrimony. After winning [on the battlefield], Mstislav advanced upon Halyő. First [his soldiers] fought for the possession of the city gates.
When Mstislav arrived, they surrendered to him and were led down from the chuich. Danilo came with a small retinue in the company of his tysjackij Demjan. However, he came at the wrong time [after the fighting was already over] and went to Mstislav. Still others were killed by peasants, so that no one escaped. And thus God favored the land of Rus'.
Although Danilo did not take part in the victory described above, he did defeat the Hungarians ten swiss gab anti aging later when they attempted to take Halyi after he had just wrested it from them, and this Hungarian defeat is described in Biblical terms. Note that in this passage Béla IV who did not rule Hungary alone until appears as co-regent with his father Andrew II under the year in the GVC, a fact which is historically accurate.
Moreover, the Galician chronicler has a soft spot in his svájci öregedésgátló ösztöndíj for King Andrew's third son Andrew who at this time has replaced his brother Koloman as the contender for the throne of Halyö See Note 13 : Danilo rose the anti aging svájci gyalogsági felfedező morning, rode around the city and gathering [all] the inhabitants of the Galician land, surrounded it by dividing his troops into four battalions.
He swiss gab anti aging collected [his vast army] from the Bobrka as far as the river Usica and the Prut. Its inhabitants [soon] became exhausted and surrendered the city. As Danilo was occupying the city, he remembered King Andrej's affection for him] and released his son. The only person to leave Halve with the king's son was Sudislav. The Galicians threw stones at him and said: "Depart from our city, you instigator of rebellions in our land!
If you won't go, they will gain in strength against us". He [boasted] that the city of Halyö would not remain on the face of the earth], for there was no one to deliver it from his hands. But as he was going through the Hungarian Mountains, 14 God sent against him the Archangel Michael [who] released the torrents of heaven [upon him].
The horses of the Hungarians drowned [in the ensuing floodwhile they themselves sought succour on high ground. The king besieged the city and sent a messenger who cried out in a loud voice: "Listen to the great Hungarian king. Let not Demjan prepare you [for battlej with the words 'God will deliver swiss gab anti aging from [the evils of this] earth', and let not your Danilo place his trust in God and tell you that this city would not surrender to the Hungarian king.
Who indeed can oppose me and the power of my regiments? Swiss gab anti aging summoned the Poles and Kotjan's Polovcians to his side, while the king had Begovar's Polovcians as his allies. But God sent down Pharaoh's plague [upon the enemy. Thus], the city grew stronger and stronger, and Bela - weaker and weaker; [finally] he withdrew from the city, abandoning many men - [from] both infantry and cavalry.
When the inhabitants of the city attacked them, many of them fell in the river, some were killed, some wounded, and some were taken captive. As has been said somewhere: "[Just as] the Skyrt river played a swiss gab anti aging trick on the inhabitants of the city", so did the Dniester play a bad trick on the Hungarians. But the Lord sent a plague [upon the Hungarians] and His angel struck them down.
And thus they perished: some shed their skin as they would their shoes, 17 some found their way into the midst of a herd of horses and perished there, while still others died as they gathered around a fire and were raising a piece of meat to their lips. They died of many different afflictions while heavenly torrents inundated them without discrimination. Thus, [Bela] fled because of the infidelity of the Galician boy olay anti aging krém, while Danilo took possession of his city - HalycS.
However, only one year later — and in an apparent paradox when contrasted with the above passage — when King Andrew is successful in capturing the cities of Jaroslavl', Halyc", and Volodimer', the Galician chronicler records this without any bias against the Hungarians, but rather with a reproach against Danilo's subordinates who had surrendered so easily.
The passage begins with the escape of Danilo's adversary, Prince Oleksander Vsevolodovii to Hungary : And thus he arrived in Hungary and went to Sudislav, [who] was at that time in Hungary. Sudislav went to King Adnrej and persuaded the Hungarian king [to march against Danilo]. And King Andrej advanced upon Jaroslavl' in the company of his son Bela and his other son Andrej.
The boyar David Vysatic" and [the voyevoda] Vasilko Gavriloviő barricaded swiss gab anti aging in Jaroslavl', [defending it] in Danilo's name. The Hungarians fought until sunset but the city repulsed them. In the evening [the besieged] held a council [during which] David became frightened because his mother-in-law, the wife of the steward Nezdilo, whom he addressed as mother, was faithful to Sudislav and told him that he would not be able to hold the city.
But Vasilko [exhorted] him: "Let us not disgrace our prince. David, however, would not heed him and was bent on giving up the city. Then Cak came from the Hungarian regiments and reported that they could not defeat them, for they had been badly beaten. Yet despite Vasilko's heated insistence not to surrender the city, David delivered it to [the Hungariansfor fear had paralyzed his heart. He walked out unharmed with all his troops, swiss gab anti aging the king occupied Jaroslavl', [from which] he then advanced upon Halyi.
But [the boyar] Klimjata of Golyje Gory fled from Prince Danilo to the king, and following his example all the Galician boyars surrendered. From [Halyő] the king advanced upon Volodimer'. When he came to Volodimer' he was amazed [by what he swiss gab anti aging and said: "Such a city I did not find in the German lands," for armed soldiers were astride its swiss gab anti aging and both the soldiers and their shields glistened like the sun.
In accordance with the [provisions of] the peace treaty he gave Belz and Cerven to [Prince] Oleksander, The king [in the meantime] placed his son Andrej [on the throne of] Halve" upon the advice of the unfaithful Galicians.
While the king stayed in Volodimer', Prince Danilo took much booty ravaging the outskirts of Bufsk. Then the king returned to Hungary.
Consequently, that very same] year the Hungarian king [Béla IV] sent a courtier?
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- Не знаю, стоит ли обращать внимание на мои догадки, но, думаю, они примут решение запечатать Гробницу Ярлана Зея, чтобы никто больше не смог повторить твое путешествие.
After consulting with his brother, Danilo [decided] not to believe him since he had previously deceived him with his promise to marry his daughter [to Lev]. The Metropolitan Kuril traveled [through Hungary on his way to the Patriarch of Nicaea, where] he was sent by Danilo and Vasilko to be confirmed as head of the Metropolitan See of Rus'. Swiss gab anti aging he was visiting the king, the latter won him over with words and many gifts, promising to escort [Kuril] to Greece with great honor, if Danilo would only make peace with him.
And Kuril replied that he would go and bring Danilo if the king promised not to go back on his word. Thus, the Metropolitan [Kuril] came [to Danilo] informing him that his wish would soon be realized - he could take [the king's] daughter as wife for his.
And Vasilko also urged Danilo to go to the [king], because he [too] was a Arckrém 25 év felett. Thus tatting along his son Lev and the Metropolitan, Danilo went to the king in Izvolin. He took the lattei's daughter as wife for his swiss gab anti swiss gab anti aging and returned to the king the captured boyars whom God had delivered into his hands when he and his brother won at Jaroslavl'.
Arch duke. Then, as we had mentioned previously, 20 the [Hungarian] king [Bela IV] made a solemn promise to [Danilo's son] Roman, but he did not keep swiss gab anti aging. He abandoned him in the city of Ineperec and went away; he [had] promised to [help] him [in Austria], but did not [keep his promise], for he had treachery in his heart: he wanted [Roman's Austrian] cities for himself.
He had sworn a solemn oath before God to Roman and his wife that after he had conquered [this] German land, 1 ' he would give all of it to Roman. However, since [Roman's] swiss gab anti aging knew [Bela's] character, 2 3 she 26 G. Once he came with a great force and both sides fought [fiercely]. He camped [only] a thousand paces away, but could not take the city.
Therefore, in an attempt to ingratiate himself [to Roman] swiss gab anti aging said: "Leave the Hungarian king, for you are my relative and kinsman, 2 4 and I will share [this] German land with you.
But I speak the truth. I will give you my [spiritual] father - swiss gab anti aging Pope - and twelve bishops as witnesses who will testify that I plan to present you with half of the German land. But he did not send him any aid, [for] he wanted [the Austrian] cites for himself. However, since [Roman's wife] knew his cunning ways, she said [to his envoy]: "[First] he took my swiss gab anti aging 16 for his daughter and is holding him hostage, and now [he] wants our cities, while we suffer [under siege] and die of hunger for his sake.
Notes l. For an analysis of the specifically Middle Ukrainian and neutrogena cellular boost szem East Slavonic vernacular features which penetrated the literary Church Slavonic in which the chronicle was written, see my "Studies on the Galician-Volynian Chronicle" in The Annals of the Ukrainian Academy of Arts and Sciences in the U.